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Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean. The mountains lie within the Ural geographical region and significantly overlap with the Ural Federal District and with the Ural economic Uraru.
They have rich resources, including metal ores, coal, and precious and semi-precious stones. Since the 18th century the mountains have contributed significantly to the mineral sector of the Russian economy. As attested by Sigismund von Herbersteinin the 16th century Russians called the Ural range by a variety of names derived from the Russian words for rock stone and belt. It might Uraru been borrowed from either Turkic "stone belt"  Bashkirwhere the same name is used for the rangeor Ob-Ugric.
Tatischev believes that this oronym is set to "belt" and associates it with the Turkic verb oralu- "gird". Dobrodomov suggests a transition from Aral to Ural explained on the basis of ancient Bulgar - Chuvash dialects. Geographer E. Hawks believes that the name goes back to the Bashkir folklore Ural-Batyr. As Middle-Eastern merchants traded Uraru the Bashkirs and other people living on the western slopes of the Ural as far north as Great Permsince at least the 10th century medieval mideastern geographers had been aware of the existence of the mountain range in its entirety, stretching as far as the Arctic Ocean in the north.
The first Russian mention of the mountains to the east of the East European Plain is provided by the Primary Chroniclewhere it describes the Novgorodian expedition to the upper reaches of the Pechora in During the next few centuries Novgorodians engaged in fur trading with the local population and collected tribute from Yugra and Great Perm, slowly expanding southwards.
The rivers Chusovaya and Belaya were first mentioned in the chronicles of andrespectively. Inthe town of Solikamsk Kama Salt was founded on the Boobs Sucking at the foothills of the Ural, where salt was produced in open pans.
With the excursions of and — across the Ural, Moscow managed to subjugate Yugra completely. Nevertheless, around that time in the early 16th century, Polish geographer, Maciej of Miechówin his influential Tractatus de duabus Sarmatiis argued that there were no mountains in Eastern Europe at all, challenging the Uraru of view of some authors of Classical antiquity, popular during the Renaissance.
Only after Sigismund von Herberstein in his Notes on Muscovite Affairs had reported, following Russian sources, that there are mountains behind the Pechora and identified them with the Riphean Mountains and Hyperboreans of ancient authors, did the existence of the Ural, or at least of its northern Uraru, become firmly established in the Western geography. The Middle and Southern Ural were still largely unavailable and unknown to the Russian or Western European geographers. In the s, after the Tsardom of Russia had defeated the Khanate of Kazan and proceeded to gradually annex the lands of the Bashkirs, the Russians finally reached the southern part of the mountain chain.
In they founded Ufa. The Uraru reaches of the Kama and Chusovaya in the Middle Ural, still unexplored, as well as parts of Transuralia still held by the hostile Siberian Khanatewere granted to the Stroganovs by several decrees of the tsar in — In Babinov's road was built across the Ural from Solikamsk to the valley of the Turawhere the town of Verkhoturye Upper Tura was founded in Www Porrigt Se was established in Verkhoturye shortly thereafter and the road was made the only legal connection between European Russia and Siberia for a long time.
In the town of Kungur was founded at the western foothills of the Middle Ural. During the 17th century the first deposits of iron and copper ores, micagemstones and other minerals were discovered in the Ural. Iron and copper smelting works emerged. They multiplied particularly quickly during the reign of Peter I of Russia.
In — he commissioned Vasily Tatishchev to oversee and develop the mining and smelting works in the Ural. Tatishchev proposed a new copper smelting factory in Yegoshikhawhich would eventually become the core of the city of Perm and a new iron smelting factory on the Isetwhich would become the Uraru in the world at the time of construction and give birth to the city of Yekaterinburg.
Both factories were actually founded by Tatishchev's successor, Georg Wilhelm de Genninin Tatishchev returned to the Ural on the order of Empress Anna to succeed de Gennin in — Transportation of the output of the smelting works to the markets of European Russia necessitated the construction of the Siberian Route from Yekaterinburg across the Ural to Kungur and Yegoshikha Perm and further to Moscow, which was completed in and rendered Babinov's road obsolete.
In gold was discovered in the Ural at Beryozovskoye and later at other deposits. It has been mined since The first ample geographic survey of the Ural Mountains was completed in the early 18th century by the Russian historian and geographer Vasily Tatishchev under the orders of Peter I.
Earlier, in the 17th century, rich ore deposits were discovered in Uraru mountains and their systematic extraction began in the early 18th century, eventually turning the region into the largest mineral base of Russia. One of the first scientific descriptions of the mountains was published in — Over the next century, the region was studied by scientists from a number of countries, including Russia geologist Alexander Karpinskybotanist Porfiry Krylov and zoologist Leonid Sabaneyevthe United Kingdom geologist Sir Roderick MurchisonFrance paleontologist Édouard de VerneuilHentai Girl Eaten Alive Germany naturalist Alexander von Humboldtgeologist Alexander Keyserling.
In a railway linked Ufa and Chelyabinsk via Zlatoust. In this section became a part of the Trans-Siberian Railway. In yet another railway connecting Perm and Yekaterinburg passed through Kungur by the way of the Siberian Route.
It has eventually replaced the Ufa Black Potn Chelyabinsk section as the main trunk of the Fitta Wikipedia railway. The highest peak of the Ural, Mount Narodnayaelevation 1, m 6, ft was identified in During the Soviet industrialization in the s the city of Magnitogorsk was founded in the South-Eastern Ural as a center of iron smelting and steelmaking.
During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in —, the mountains became a key element in Nazi planning for the territories which they expected to conquer in the USSR. Faced with the threat of having a significant part of the Soviet territories occupied by the enemy, the government evacuated many of the industrial enterprises of European Russia and Ukraine to the eastern foothills of the Ural, considered a safe place out of reach of the German bombers and troops.
After the war, in —, Chum — Labytnangi railway, Uraru with the forced labor of Gulag inmates, crossed the Polar Ural. Mayakkm southeast of Yekaterinburgwas a center of the Soviet nuclear industry     and site of the Kyshtym disaster. Vaygach Island and the island of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain on the north. Geographically this range marks the northern part of the border between Europe and Asia. Its highest peak is Mount Narodnaya, approximately 1, m 6, ft in elevation.
The Polar Urals extend for about kilometers mi from Mount Konstantinov Kamen in the north to the river Khulga in the south; they have an area of about 25, km 2 9, sq mi and a strongly dissected relief. The maximum height is 1, m 4, ft at Payer Mountain and the average height is 1, to 1, m 3, to 3, ft. The mountains of the Polar Ural have exposed rock with sharp ridges, though flattened or rounded tops are also found.
They include the highest peaks of the range: Mount Narodnaya 1, m 6, ftMount Karpinsky 1, m 6, ft and Manaraga 1, m 5, ft. Valutaväxling Helsingborg many ridges are sawtooth shaped and dissected by river valleys. Both Polar and Nether-Polar Urals are typically Alpine; they bear traces of Pleistocene glaciation, along with permafrost and extensive modern glaciation, including extant glaciers.
The Northern Ural consist of Uraru series of parallel ridges up to 1,—1, m 3,—3, ft in height and longitudinal hollows. They are elongated from north to south and stretch for about km mi from the river Usa.
Intensive weathering has produced vast areas of eroded stone on the mountain slopes and summits of the northern areas. The Central Ural are the lowest part of the Ural, with smooth mountain tops, the highest mountain being m 3, ft Basegi ; Free Porn Xxnn extend south Penis Film the river Ufa.
The range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass. The maximum height is 1, m 5, ft Mount Yamantau and the width reaches km mi. The Southern Urals extend some km mi up to the sharp westward bend of the river Ural and terminate in the Guberlin Mountains and finally in the wide Mughalzhar Hills. The Urals are among the world's oldest extant mountain ranges. For its age of to million years, the elevation of the mountains is unusually high.
They formed during the Uraru orogeny due to the collision of the eastern edge of the supercontinent Pornhub Shop Uraru the young Teen No Bra rheologically weak continent of Kazakhstaniawhich now underlies much of Kazakhstan and West Siberia west of the Irtyshand intervening island arcs. The collision lasted nearly 90 million years in the late Carboniferous — early Triassic.
The sedimentary and volcanic layers are folded and faulted. The sediments to the west of the Ural Mountains are formed of limestonedolomite and sandstone left from ancient shallow seas. The eastern side is dominated by basalts. The western slope of the Ural Mountains has predominantly karst topographyespecially in the Sylva basin, which is a tributary of the Chusovaya.
It is composed of severely eroded sedimentary Uraru sandstones and limestones that Uraru about million years old.
There are many cavessinkholes and underground streams. The karst topography is much less developed on the eastern slopes. The eastern slopes are relatively flat, with some hills and rocky outcrops and contain alternating volcanic and sedimentary layers dated to the middle Paleozoic Era.
The river valleys are underlain by limestone. The Ural Mountains contain about 48 species of economically valuable ores and minerals. Eastern regions are rich in Black Cat Dva Skinnickel oxidegoldplatinumchromite and magnetite ores, as well as in coal Chelyabinsk Oblastbauxitetalcfireclay and abrasives.
The Western Urals contain deposits Letmejerk coal, oil, natural gas Ishimbay and Krasnokamsk areas and potassium salts. Both slopes are rich in bituminous coal and ligniteand the largest deposit of bituminous coal is in the north Pechora field. The specialty of the Uraru is precious and semi-precious stones, such as emeraldamethystaquamarinejasperrhodonitemalachite and diamond.
Some of the deposits, such as the magnetite ores at Magnitogorskare already nearly depleted. Many rivers originate in the Ural Mountains. The western slopes south of the border between the Komi Republic and Perm Krai and the eastern slopes south of approximately 54°30'N drain into the Caspian Sea via the Kama and Ural basins.
The tributaries of the Kama include the VisheraChusovaya, and Belaya and originate on both the eastern and western slopes. Generally, the western rivers have higher flow volume than the eastern ones, especially in the Northern and Nether-Polar regions. Rivers are slower in the Southern Urals. The mountains contain a number of deep lakes. Lake Bolshoye Shchuchye, the deepest lake in the Polar Urals, is meters ft deep. Other lakes, too, are found in the glacial valleys of this region.
The climate of the Urals is continental. The mountain ridges, elongated from north to south, effectively absorb sunlight thereby increasing the temperature. The areas west of the Ural Mountains are 1—2 °C 1. This is because the mountains trap clouds from the Atlantic Ocean.
Bokaki highest precipitation, approximately 1, mm 39 inis in the Northern Urals with up to 1, cm in snow. The eastern areas receive from — mm 20—24 in in the north to — mm 12—16 in Uraru the south.
Maximum precipitation occurs in the summer: the winter Riae Nude dry because of the Siberian High.
Vaygach Island and the islands of Novaya Zemlya form a further continuation of the chain to the north into the Arctic Ocean.
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The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BC, but went into gradual decline and was eventually conquered by the Iranian Medes in the early 6th century BC. Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I c. Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to further attacks and invasions by the Middle and Neo-Assyrian Empires , which lay to the south in Upper Mesopotamia "the Jazirah" and northern Syria , especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I c. Urartu reemerged in Assyrian language inscriptions in the ninth century BC as a powerful northern rival to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Nairi states and tribes became unified kingdom under King Arame of Urartu c.